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Herbal Indications

zhang zhong jing

Zhang Zhongjing' Clinical Application of 50 Medicinals

By Professor Huang Huang, Nanjing University of CM

Indications for Chinese Herbal Medicine

The indications of herbal medicine specify the appropriate and correct use of herbs in clinical practice. These are also known as the herbal indications. For example, the indications of 麻黄(ma huang, Herba Ephedrae) create the ma huang (Herba Ephedrae) pattern, while the indications of 桂枝(gui zhi, Ramulus Cinnamomi) construct the gui zhi (Ramulus Cinnamomi) pattern. Through thousands of years of study, the medical principle of traditional Chinese medicine applies the use of herbs to such patterns.

Herbal medicine indications do not stem from the theory of animal laboratory test results, but instead from our ancestors' years of direct experience in treating diseases. Legend says that our ancestors had contact with herbs where the Divine Husbandman tasted hundreds of herbs". These principles come from direct experience rather than theory.

Herbal indications take into account the human person. It could be said that western medicine treats "human diseases," and traditional Chinese medicine treats "humans with diseases". Treating the human being is the premise of using herbal indications. Therefore, in On Cold Damage and Miscellaneous Diseases (伤寒杂病论), there are many idioms such as "patient," "thin people," "person who suffers from center cold," "person who suffers from dampness," "the rich," "strong person," "weak person," "patient suffering from heavy sensation of the head with dizziness," and "person who suffers from seminal loss". Chinese medicine considers the persons' constitutions, symptoms, signs, mental and psychological states, behaviors, and lifestyles to be important aspects. Other factors are considered such as whether the patient is fat or thin, strong or weak, has a yellow face or a white face; feels aversion to cold or heat, with or without fever, sweats, appetite, vomiting; suffers from diarrhea or constipation, has bleeding or no bleeding, feels fullness and pain below the heart of stuffiness below the heart, suffers from cough and counterflow with qi ascending or shortness of breath, fullness in the chest or in the abdomen, fullness or hard fullness, feels thirsty or not, with uninhibited or inhibited urination, feels vexation or not, dizzy or not, sleepy or sleepless, keeps silent with no desire to talk or acts as if crazed, with qi surging up or shortness of breath, suffers from an hoarse of blocked throat or a sore throat, with a floating or sunken pulse, with a moderate or skipping pulse, etc. are all major concerns when doctors decide what herbs to prescribe.

The criteria that determine therapeutic effect are the basic vital signs such as whether the patient is sweating or not, whether the pulse can be felt or not, whether the patient feels thirsty or not, whether bleeding stops or not, etc. The purpose of using herbs according to the pattern is to relieve the patient's pain. The pain here refers entirely to the patient's subjective experience. It is associated with physical and mental suffering and the decrease in the quality of life. It ca be said that traditional Chinese medicine's greatest objective and ultimate goal lies in relieving the patients' suffering and improving their quality of life.

Herbal indications are objective. This comes from thousands of years of clinical practices with solid proof. It is neither a philosophical concept nor a religious perception, but it is a known fact. When Zhang Zhong-jing made reference to "observing the pulse and signs," it means that the pulse and signs are objective. Herbal indications can be refuted and can be validated by its efficacy. In clinic, appropriate herbs must be used when the corresponding indications exist, and the therapeutic effect should follow. On the contrary, if herbs are not used based on appropriate indications, or if the herbs are used without the presence of certain indications, the results will certainly be inadequate. Wrong diagnosis or the slightest deviation will bring unsuccessful outcomes. Therefore, herbal indications are objective, which means its results can be observed and verified.

Herbal indications are specific and simple. There are no abstract theories such as the yin and yang, five phases, original qi mingmen (life-gate), liver yang and heart fire, spleen deficiency or kidney deficiency. Instead, the foundation for using the herbs is based on observing the patients themselves. Factors to consider are whether the patient's body type is tall, short, fat, or thin; whether the skin is black, white, moistened or dry. Important aspects to observe are the pathological appearances of mouth, eyes, nose, tongue, lip, throat, pulse, abdomen, blood, secretions, and excretions because they constitute the herbal indications. The indications are the most basic and important factors that constitute concepts in traditional Chinese medicine. Indications are essential for various pattern identifications such as: Eight principles pattern identification, six channels pattern identification, disease case pattern identification, organ pattern identification, qi, blood and fluid pattern identification, wei qi and ying blood pattern identification, triple jiao pattern identification. It is impossible to understand traditional Chinese medicine without becoming very familiar with the indications.

Herbal indications are integrative. The indications of single herbs and formulas are quite different from the "patterns" in modern traditional Chinese medicine or "diseases" in western medicine. Herbal indications developed through the practical and clinical use of the herbs. However, it will be difficult to discuss the indications without reference to specific herbs because the indications refer to specific modern diseases, syndromes, symptoms, or constitutional types.

Herbal indications are stable. The diseases continue to change throughout time. Some diseases are managed and controlled but new diseases arise. AIDS, Ebola virus, 0-157 coliform bacilli, and SARS did not exist before, but they are the current diseases in our society today. Diseases will continue to evolve and change. However, the human body's response to disease does not change at all. Our current experiences of disease with symptoms such as fever, cough, coma, and bleeding do not differ from what our ancestors experienced in their times of illness. Herbal indications are diagnostic and reflect the pathological responses of the "human being" regardless of the type of pathogen. The herbal indications are stable with nearly no change in thousands of years, and they will not change even with new or changing diseases. Regardless of the era or type of disease, we can use 柴胡 (chai hu, Radix Bupleuri), and 桂枝(gui zhi, Ramulus Cinnamomi) as long as we see 柴胡 (chai hu, Radi Bupleuri) indications and 桂枝 (gui zhi, Ramuls Cinnamomi) indications. This fact is true whether we are living in Zhang Zhong-jing's times or in our modern times today. Therefore, herbal indications can withstand the test of time. Doctor Xu Ling-tai of the Qing Dynasty stated: "A prescription's ability to treat disease is fixed, but the diseases are always changing. If we treat disease based on this understanding of prescriptions, the therapeutic outcome will always be achieved regardless of how diseases change" (Foreword for Categorization of Formulas from the Discussion on Cold Damage, 伤寒论类方).

Herbal indications are strict. Herbs can only be used when the appropriate indications exist. If there are no such indications, the corresponding herbs should not be used. The modification of herbs should change according to the changing clinical indications, but not randomly. Take 桂枝汤 (Gui Zhi Tang,  Cinnamon Twig Decoction) as an example. It can be used when the indications are aversion to wind, sweating, and a floating pulse. If there is excessive sweating, with aversion to cold and pain in the joints, 附子 (fu zi, Radix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata) must be added. if the patient suffers from body pain and has a sunken and slow pulse after sweating, then 人参 (ren shen, Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng must be added. if qi surges up into the heart from the lower abdomen, then add 2 liang of 桂枝 (gui zhi, Ramulus Cinnamomi). If there is pain in the abdomen, 芍药 (shao yao, Paeonia Lactiflora Pall) should be added. If there is no sweating but thee is stranguria, then remove 桂枝 (gui zhi, Ramulus Cinnamomi) and add 白术 (bai zhu, Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae) and 茯苓 (fu ling, Poria). There should be a specific reason for every modification. As Yu Jia-yan stated: "Use the herbs according to its corresponding diseases. Herbs should vary with the variation of disease". Applying this principle is the key for modifying herbs, regardless of how the disease changes. The strict guidelines for prescribing formulas account for the variations in these clinical classical prescriptions.

Herbal indications are scientific. Science is an objective observational study of the world. As Darwin said: "Science is intended to manage all the facts, in order to obtain consistent rules or conclusions". These conclusions are the relationship between objective facts. Herbal indications come from large amounts of data gained from clinical practice. Doctors have put the herbs to test through numerous practical applications thereby establishing the relationship between the herbs and their corresponding diseases. The most fascinating part of traditional Chinese herbal medicine is that it has a scientific basis with strong replicability.

Herbal indications are integrated. Just as every radish has one delve, every Chinese herb has one indication. There is strong specificity and relevance between the indications and herbs. Every single classical herb should have its corresponding indication. The herb can only be used when its corresponding indication exists. Moreover, the herb must be removed when its corresponding indication no longer exists. Every herb has two characteristics: Strict indications and repetitive therapeutic effect. The mutual correspondence between herbs and signs is referred to as "prescribing herbs according to indications".

Zhang Zhong-jing categorized these herbal indications. There are phrases such as "gui zhi indications," and "chai hu indications" in the Discussion on Cold Damage (伤寒论). The "lily disease" in the Essentials from the Golden Cabinet (金匮要略). These descriptions refer to the herb's specific indications. The beginner's mind understands the selection of Chinese herbs through applying the following technique: Theory-method-decoction-herb. In actuality, the opposite is true. When experienced clinicians approach a patient, they first consider the pertinent "single herbal indication," then the "formula indications," then the "treatment method," and then finally the "theory" is derived. Every single herb has strict indications. Every single formula prescription has a combination of specific herbs which requires specific existing indications. This method is the basis for prescribing and using herbs. As Zou Shu said: "If one does not know that each disease has its appropriate prescription, that each prescription has its single herbs, and that each single herb has its effect, then one cannot determine which herbs to use. Then how can a doctor prescribe? How can a doctor treat disease if they fail to make a prescription?" (Commentary on the Classic of Materia Medica, 本经疏证)

The single herbal indication is the foundation that constitutes formula indications. The formula indications are the enlarged indications of single herbs. Therefore, Zhu Gong considered the single herbal indication and the formula indications as a whole. He said: "Before the prescription is prescribed, the herbal indication should be identified as a certain prescription governs a a certain disease" (Book to Safeguard Life Arranged According to Pattern, 类证活人书). However, the single herbal indication is different from the formula indications. Formula indications are not the simple addition of the indications of single herbs. Instead, they are a completely different and complex combination. Formula indications should be understood as a single indication.

Correspondence of Herbal Indications

Correspondence of herbal indications is how this medicine gains its therapeutic effect. To achieve clinical results, the indications should correspond to the herbs. "Take the prescription only when the disease corresponds to it completely" (CD 317). This method is known as "prescribing herbs according to the indications". If gui zhi (Ramulus Cinnamomi) was an arrow, and the gui zhi indications were the target, we need only to aim right at the target and shoot straight. Therapeutic results can be achieved and guaranteed when the herb or decoction correspond to the indication. However, if they do not match, the herbs will be ineffective. This is the key for the therapeutic outcome in traditional Chinese medicine.

"Our ancestors made every single decoction to correspond with every single indication. If it was a harsh winter season and 白虎汤 (the Bai Hu Tang, White Tiger Decoction) indications were observed, how could one decline using 石膏 (shi gao, Gypsum Fibrosum)? If it is midsummer and 真武汤 (Zhen Wu Tang, True Warrior Decoction) indications are present, how could one refuse to use 附子 (fu zi, Radix Aconit Lateralis Praeparata)? If an old patient can tolerate purging, why not use 芒硝 (mang xiao, Natrii Sulfas) and 大黄 (da huang, Radix et Rhizoma Rhei)? If a strong patient can endure warming, why not use 干姜 (gan jiang, Rhizoma Zingiberis) and 附子 (fu zi Radix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata)? These recommendations are for the patients who need these herbs" (Discussion on Prescriptions in the Golden Mirror, 金镜内台方义).

The correspondence of herbal indications is the principle for using natural herbs clinically. The ingredients of natural herbs are extremely complicated. The question can be asked, what will be the effect after the herbs are administered? Its secret is truly difficult to know. With data from animal laboratory testing and modern medicine's insight into the human physiology and pathology, we can now guide traditional and natural herbs into the body via brewed decoctions, pills, and powder preparations. The patient is asked to take the decoction of natural herbs and it is hoped that good results will occur but this may not be the case. The scientific community may show respectable interest in the effective clinical applications and principles obtained by our ancestors' years of clinical practice. The principle of applying herbal indications should not be dismissed.

The correspondence of herbal indications relates to medical diagnosis and treatment. It is not uncommon that modern medicine can diagnose but does not have the knowledge for treatment. However, in traditional Chinese medicine, the herbal indications can be identified even if the specific diseases cannot be determined by modern medicine. Treatment ca be applied whenever the indications are apparent. The principles of using herbal indications do not require the identification of a specific disease pathogen, but is only concerned about the human body in the progression of a disease. The human body's reaction to the pathology and disease is most relevant for treatment. Therefore, the proof of the herbs lies in the application and outcomes on the human body and the pathology. using scientific methods to study herbal medicines will definitely reveal new discoveries in the progression of human pathology.

Identifying herbal indications is the hallmark of a clinician's efficacy and success. The ability of a famous doctor is associated with "meticulous care" or his ability to "identify the pattern accurately". However, knowing the corresponding indications to certain herbs is the best and absolute course towards a correct diagnosis and herbal treatment since clinical results can often vary depending on the doctor's clinical experience, way of thinking, and mental state. Understanding the correspondence of indications for herbs is an excellent goal for every TCM clinician to achieve.

The Purpose of This Book

The Discussion on Cold Damage and the Essential Formulas from the Golden Cabinet contain a large amount of ancient empirical formulas and the explanations of their use. These empirical formulas have a long history, and are the accumulation of experience gained by the thorough application of natural herbs, and are called "classical formulas" by later generations. There are many clinicians who excel at making use of the ancient formulas in the Discussion on Cold Damage and the Essential Formulas from the Golden Cabinet, and the study of their use forms a unique school of medical thought, the classical formula school. The explanations for using each formula made by Zhang Zhong-jing, show the unique scientific perspective of Doctor Zhang Zhong-jing. Indications for many formulas are descriptions of a certain type of disease, or a certain constitution. In reality, such descriptions can be typical, non-typical, comprehensive, limited, superficial, or detailed, but it is believed that the descriptions are very objective. His way of thinking and method of studying the human body and its diseases has become the foundation for the development of Chinese medicine.

In the Discussion on Cold Damage, of the 114 prescriptions, there are 113 prescriptions with specific formula names with a total of 91 herbs. Thirty-six formulas are used once and fifty-five prescriptions are used more than twice. In the Essentials from the Golden Cabinet, of the 205 prescriptions, there are 199 prescriptions with specific formula names with a total of 156 single herbs. In these prescriptions, sixty-two herbs are used more than once and fifty-five herbs are used more than twice. This book selects the fifty most frequently used herbs and explains their indications as described by Zhang Zhong-jing's formulas, reducing herb patterns, and frequently used formulas. Be assured that any doctor can create numerous new formula prescriptions from these fifty herbs as long as they can truly understand every herb's indications and the herb combinations.

"Classic books should be read over and over again. After reading the books and contemplating on them, you will realize that the truth lies in the books." (Su Shi, Song Dynasty). The Discussion on Cold Damage and the Essentials from the Golden Cabinet are actual records of clinical practice. Doctors of all dynasties recommend reading Zhang Zhong-jing's book over and over again with a special focus on the clinical work which can provide significant insights.

I hope my work can inspire more people to learn about ancient traditional Chinese medicine. Only by learning from our ancestors can we make progress. Only when the root is embedded deeply into earth can branches and leaves thrive. The development of traditional Chinese medicine cannot be separated from its outstanding ancient lineage because it is truly the root of traditional Chinese medicine.

List of Prescriptions in the Discussion on Cold Damage and the Essentials from the Golden Cabinet

(Note: Ingredients, preparation, direction, and the origin are described under each prescriptions of this list.)

  1. 百合滑石散Bai He Hua Shi San, Lily Bulb and Talcum Powder
  2. 百合知母汤Bai He Zhi Mu Tang, Lily Bulb and Anemarrhena Decoction
  3. 百合加桂枝汤Bai Hu Jia Gui Zhi Tang, White Tiger Decoction Plus Cinnamon Twig
  4. 百合加人参汤Bai Hu Jia Ren Shen Tang, White Tiger Decoction Plus Ginseng
  5. 白虎汤Bai Hu Tang, White Tiger Decoction
  6. 白通加猪胆汁汤Bai Tong Jia Zhu Dan Zhi Tang, Scallion Yang-Freeing Decoction Plus Pig's Bile
  7. 白通汤Bai Tong Tang, Scallion Yang-Freeing Decoction
  8. 白头翁加甘草阿胶汤Bai Tou Weng Jia Gan Cao E Jiao Tang, Pulsatilla Decoction Plus ass Hide Glue and Licorice
  9. 白头翁汤Bai Tou Weng Tang, Pulsatilla Decoction
  10. 白散汤Bai San Tang, White Powder Decoction
  11. 白术散Bai Zhu San, White Atractylodes Powder
  12. 半夏厚朴汤Ban Xia Hou Po Tang, Pinellia and Officinal Magnolia Bark Decoction
  13. 半夏麻黄丸Ban Xia Ma Huang Wan, Pinellia and Ephedra Pill
  14. 半夏散Ban Xia San, Pinelliae Powder and Ban Xia Tang, Pinelliae Decoction
  15. 半夏泻心汤Ban Xia Xie Xin Tang, Pinellia Heart-Draining Decoction
  16. 鳖甲煎丸Bie Jia Jian Wan, Turtle Shell Decocted Pill
  17. 柴胡桂枝干姜汤Chai Hu Gui Zhi Gan Jiang Tang, Bupleurum, Cinnamon Twig and Dried Ginger Decoction
  18. 柴胡桂枝汤Chai Hu Gui Zhi Tang, Bupleurum and Cinnamon Twig Decoction
  19. 柴胡加龙骨牡蛎汤Chai Hu Jia Long gu Mu Li Tang, Bupleurum Decoction Plus Dragon Bone and Oyster Shell
  20. 柴胡加芒硝汤Chai Hu Jia Mang Xiao Tang, Bupleurum Decoction Plus Marabilite
  21. 柴胡去半夏加栝楼汤Chai Hu Qu Ban Xia Jia Gua Lou Tang, Bupleurum Decoction Minus Pinellia Plus Trichosanthes
  22. 赤石脂丸Chi Shi Zhi Wan, Halloysite Pill
  23. 赤丸Chi Wan (Red Pill)
  24. 大半夏汤Da Ban Xia Tang, Major Pinellia Decoction
  25. 大柴胡汤Da Chai Hu Tang, Major Bupleurum Decoction
  26. 大承气汤Da Cheng Qi Tang, Major Qi-Coordinating Decoction
  27. 大黄附子汤Da Huang Fu Zi Tang, Rhubarb and Aconite Decoction
  28. 大黄甘草汤Da Huang Gan Cao Tang, Rhubarb and Licorice Decoction
  29. 大黄甘遂汤Da Huang Gan Sui Tang, Rhubarb and Kansui Decoction
  30. 大黄黄连泻心汤Da Huang Huang Lian Xie Xin Tang, Rhubarb and Coptis Heart-Draining Decoction
  31. 大黄牡丹汤Da Huang Mu Dan Tang, Rhubarb and Moutan Decoction
  32. 大黄硝石汤Da Huang Xiao Shi Tang, Rhubarb and Niter Decoction
  33. 大黄蛰虫丸Da Huang Zhe Chong Wan, Rhubarb and Ground Beetle Pill
  34. 大建中汤Da Jian Zhong Tang, Major Center-Fortifying Decoction
  35. 大青龙汤Da Qing Long Tang, Major Green-Blue Dragon Decoction
  36. 大陷胸汤Da Xian Xiong Tang, Major Chest Bind Decoction
  37. 大陷胸丸Da Xian Xiong Wan, Jajor Chest Bind Pill
  38. 当归散Dang Gui San, Chinese Angelica Powder
  39. 当归芍药散Dang Gui Shao Yao San, Chinese Angelica and Peony Powder
  40. 当归生姜养肉汤Dang Gui Sheng Jiang Yang Rou Tang, Chinese Angelica, Fresh Ginger, and Goat Meat Decoction
  41. 当归四逆加吴茱萸生姜汤Dang Gui Si Ni Jia Wu Zhu Yu Sheng Jiang Tang, Chinese Angelica Counterflow Cold Decoction Plus Evodia and Fresh Ginger
  42. 当归四逆汤Dang Gui Si Ni Tang, Chinese Angelica Counterflow Cold Decoction
  43. 抵当汤Di Dang Tang, Dead-on Decoction
  44. 抵当丸Di Dang Wan, Dead-on Pill
  45. 防己茯苓汤Fang Ji Fu Ling Tang, Fangji and Poria Decoction
  46. 防己黄芪汤Fang Ji Huang Qi Tang, Fangji and Astragalus Decoction
  47. 防己椒目葶苈大黄丸Fang Ji Jiao Mu Ting Li Da Huang Wan, Fangji, Zanthoxylum Seed, Lepidium and Rhubarb Pill
  48. 茯苓甘草汤Fu Ling Gan Cao Tang, Poria and Licorice Decoction
  49. 茯苓桂枝甘草大枣汤Fu Ling Gui Zhi Gan Cao Da Zao Tang, Poria, Cinnamon Twig, Licorice and Jujube Decoction
  50. 茯苓戎盐汤Fu Ling Rong Yan Tang, Poria and Halite Decoction
  51. 茯苓四逆汤Fu Ling Si Ni Tang, Poria Counterflow Cold Decoction
  52. 茯苓杏仁甘草汤Fu Ling Xing Ren Gan Cao Tang, Poria, Apricot Kernel, and Licorice Decoction
  53. 茯苓泽泻汤汤Fu Ling Ze Xie Tang, Poria and Alisma Decoction
  54. 附子粳米汤Fu Zi Jing Mi Tang, Aconite and Rice Decoction
  55. 附子汤Fu Zi Tang, Aconite Decoction
  56. 附子泻心汤Fu Zi Xie Xin Tang, Aconite Heart-Draining Decoction
  57. 甘草粉蜜汤Gan Cao Fen Mi Tang, Licorice, Processed Galenite, and Honey Decoction
  58. 甘草附子汤Gan Cao Fu Zi Tang, Licorice and Aconite Decoction
  59. 甘草干姜茯苓白术汤Gan Cao Gan Jiang Fu Ling Bai Zhu Tang, Licorice, Dried Ginger, Poria, and White Atractylodes Decoction
  60. 甘草干姜汤Gan Cao Gan Jiang Tang, Licorice and Dried Ginger Decoction
  61. 甘草麻黄汤Gan Cao Ma Huang Tang, Licorice and Ephedra Decoction
  62. 甘草汤Gan Cao Tang, Licorice Decoction
  63. 甘麦大枣汤Gan Mai Da Zao Tang, Licorice, Wheat and Jujube Decoction
  64. 甘草泻心汤Gan Cao Xie Xin Tang, Licorice Heart-Draining Decoction
  65. 干姜附子汤Gan Jiang Fu Zi Tang, Dried Ginger and Aconite Decoction
  66. 干姜黄芩黄连人参汤Gan Jiang Huang Qin Huang Lian Ren Shen Tang, Dried Ginger, Scutellaria, Coptis, and Ginseng Decoction
  67. 甘姜人参半夏丸Gan Jiang Ren Shen Ban Xia Wan, Dried Ginger, Ginseng and Pinellia Pill
  68. 葛根黄芩黄连汤Ge Gen Huang Qin Huang Lian Tang, Pueraria, Scutellaria, and Coptis Decoction
  69. 葛根加半夏汤Ge Gen Jia Ban Xia Tang, Pueraria Decoction Plus Pinellia
  70. 葛根汤Ge Gen Tang, Pueraria Decoction
  71. 桂苓五味甘草去桂加干姜细辛半夏汤Gui Ling Wu Wei Gan Cao Qu Gui Jia Gan Jiang Xi Xin Ban Xia Tang, Cinnamon Twig, Poria, Chinese Magnoliavine Fruit, and Licorice Decoction Minus Cinnamon Twig Plus Dried Ginger, Asarum and Pinellia
  72. 桂苓五味甘草汤Gui Li Wu Wei Gan Cao Tang, Cinnamon Twig, Poria, Chinese Magnoliavine Fruit, and Licorice Decoction
  73. 桂枝茯苓丸Gui Zhi Fu Ling Wan, Cinnamon Twig and Poria Pill
  74. 桂枝附子汤Gui Zhi Fu Zi Tang, Cinnamon Twig and Aconite Decoction
  75. 桂枝甘草龙骨牡蛎汤Gui Zhi Gan Cao Long Gu Mu Li Tang, Cinnamon Twig, Licorice, Dragon Bone, and Oyster Shell Decoction
  76. 桂枝加大黄汤Gui Zhi Jia Da Huang Tang, Cinnamon Twig Decoction Plus Rhubarb
  77. 桂枝甘草汤Gui Zhi Gan Cao Tang, Cinnamon Twig and Licorice Decoction
  78. 桂枝加附子汤Gui Zhi Jia Fu Zi Tang, Cinnamon Twig Decoction Plus Aconite
  79. 桂枝加葛根汤Gui Zhi Jia Ge Gen Tang, Cinnamon Twig Decoction Plus Pueraria
  80. 桂枝加桂汤Gui Zhi Jia Gui Tang, Cinnamon Twig Decoction with Extra Cinnamon
  81. 桂枝加厚朴汤Gui Zhi Jia Hou Po Xing Zi Tang, Cinnamon Twig Decoction Plus Officinal Magnolia Bark and Apricot
  82. 桂枝加黄芪汤Gui Zhi Jia Huang Qi Tang, Cinnamon Twig Decoction Plus Astragalus
  83. 桂枝加龙骨牡蛎汤Gui Zhi Jia Long Gu Mu Li Tang, Cinnamon Twig Decoction Plus Dragon Bone and Oyster Shell
  84. 桂枝加芍药生姜各一两人参三两新加汤Gui Zhi Jia Shao Yao Sheng Jiang Ge Yi Liang Ren Shen San Liang Xin Jia Tang, Cinnamon Twig Decoction Plus Peony, Fresh Ginger, and Ginseng Decoction
  85. 桂枝去桂加茯苓白术汤Gui Zhi Qu Gui Jia Fu Ling Bai Zhu Tang, Cinnamon Twig Decoction Minus Peony Plus Poria and Atractylodes
  86. 桂枝去芍药加附子汤Gui Zhi Qu Shao Yao Jia Fu Zi Tang, Cinnamon Twig Decoction Minus Peony Plus Aconite
  87. 桂枝去芍药加麻黄细辛汤Gui Zhi Qu Shao Yao Jia Ma Huang Xi Xin Tang, Cinnamon Twig Decoction Minus Peony Plus Ephedra, Aconite, and Asarum
  88. 桂枝去芍药加蜀漆牡蛎龙骨救逆汤Gui Zhi Qu Shao Yao Jia Shu Qi Mu Li Long Gu Jiu Ni Tang, Cinnamon Twig Minus Peony Plus Dichroa Leaf, Oyster Shell and Dragon Bone Counterflow-stemming Decoction
  89. 桂枝去芍药汤Gui Zhi Qu Shao Yao Tang, Cinnamon Twig Decoction Minus Peony
  90. 桂枝人参汤Gui Zhi Ren Shen Tang, Cinnamon Twig and Ginseng Decoction
  91. 桂枝芍药知母汤Gui Zhi Shao Yao Zhi Mu Tang, Cinnamon Twig, Peony, and Anemarrhena Decoction
  92. 桂枝生姜枳实汤Gui Zhi Sheng Jiang Zhi Shi Tang, Cinnamon Twig, Fresh Ginger, and Unripe Bitter Orange
  93. 桂枝汤Gui Zhi Tang, Cinnamon Twig Decoction
  94. 栝楼桂枝汤Gua Lou Gui Zhi Tang, Trichosanthes and Cinnamon Twig Decoction
  95. 栝楼牡蛎散Gua Lou Mu Li San, Trichosanthes and Oyster Shell Powder
  96. 栝楼瞿麦丸Gua Lou Qu Mai Wan, Trichosanthes and Dianthus Pill
  97. 栝楼薤白白酒汤Gua Lou Xie Bai Bai Jiu Tang, Trichosanthes, Chinese Chive and White Liquor Decoction
  98. 栝楼薤白半夏汤Gua Lou Xie Bai Ban Xia Tang, Trichosanthes, Chinese Chive and Pinellia Decoction
  99. 厚朴大黄汤Hou Po Da Huang Tang, Officinal Magnolia Bark and Rhubarb Decoction
  100. 厚朴麻黄汤Hou Po Ma Huang Tang, Officinal Magnolia Bark and Ephedra Decoction
  101. 厚朴七物汤Hou Po Qi Wu Tang, Officinal Magnolia Bark Seven Agents Decoction
  102. 厚朴三物汤Hou Po San Wu Tang, Officinal Magnolia Bark Three Agents Decoction
  103. 厚朴生姜半夏甘草人参汤Hou Po Sheng Jiang Ban Xia Gan Cao Ren Shen Tang, Officinal Magnolia Bark, Fresh Ginger, Pinellia, Licorice, and Ginseng Decoction
  104. 滑石白鱼散Hua Shi Bai Yu San, Talcum and Erythroculter Powder
  105. 黄连阿胶汤Huang Lian E Jiao Tang, Coptis and Ass Hide Glue Decoction
  106. 黄连汤Huang Lian Tang, Coptis Decoction
  107. 黄芪桂枝五物汤Huang Qi Gui Zhi Wu Wu Tang, Astragalus and Cinnamon Twig Five Agents Decoction
  108. 黄芪芍药桂枝苦酒汤Huang Qi Shao Yao Gui Zhi Ku Jiu Tang, Astragalus and Cinnamon Twig Decoction with Vinegar
  109. 黄芩加半夏生姜汤Huang Qin Jia Ban Xia Sheng Jiang Tang, Scutellaria Decoction Plus Pinellia and Fresh Ginger
  110. 黄芩汤Huang Qin Tang, Scutellaria Decoction
  111. 黄土汤Huang Tu Tang, Yellw Earth Decoction
  112. 桔梗汤Jie Geng Tang, Platycodon Decoction
  113. 桔皮汤Ju Pi Tang, Tanjerine Peel Decoction
  114. 桔皮枳实生姜汤Ju Pi Zhi Shi Sheng Jiang Tang, Tangerine Peel, Unripe Bitter Orange, and Fresh Ginger Decoction
  115. 桔皮竹茹汤Ju Pi Zhu Ru Tang, Tangerine Peel and Bamboo Shavings Decoction
  116. 苦酒汤Ku Jiu Tang, Acetum Decoction
  117. 葵子茯苓散Kui Zi Fu Ling San, Mallow Seed and Poria Powder
  118. 理中丸Li Zhong Wan, Center Rectifying Pill
  119. 苓甘五味加姜辛半夏杏仁汤Ling Gan Wu Wei Jia Jiang Xin Ban Xia Xing Ren Tang, Poria, Licorice, Schisandra plus Ginger, Asarum, Pinellia and Apricot Kernel Decoction
  120. 苓甘五味加姜辛半杏大黄汤Ling Gan Wu Wei Jia Jiang Xin Ban Xing Da Huang Tang, Poria, Licorice, and Schisandra Decoction plus Ginger, Asarum, Pinellia, Apricot Kernel, and Rhubarb
  121. 苓甘五味姜辛汤Ling Gan Wu Wei Jiang Xin Tang, Poria, Licorice, Schisandra, Ginger, and Asarum Decoction
  122. 麻黄醇酒汤Ma Huang Chun Jiu Tang, Ephedra and Wine Decoction
  123. 麻黄附子甘草汤Ma Huang Fu Zi Gan Cao Tang, Ephedra, Aconite, and Licorice Decoction
  124. 麻黄附子细辛汤Ma Huang Fu Zi Xi Xin Tang, Ephedra, Aconite, and Asarum Decoction
  125. 麻黄附子汤Ma Huang Fu Zi Tang, Ephedra and Aconite Decoction
  126. 麻黄加术汤Ma Huang Jia Zhu Tang, Ephedra Decoction plus White Atractylodes
  127. 麻黄连翘赤小豆汤Ma Huang Lian Qiao Chi Xiao Dou Tang, Ephedra, Forsythia, and Rice Bean Decoction
  128. 麻黄汤Ma Huang Tang, Ephedra Decoction
  129. 麻黄杏仁甘草石膏汤Ma Huang Xing Ren Gan Cao Shi Gao Tang, Ephedra, Apricot Kernel, Gypsum, and Licorice Decoction
  130. 麻黄杏仁薏苡甘草汤Ma Huang Xing Ren Yi Yi Gan Cao Tang, Ephedra, Apricot Kernel, Coix and Licorice Decoction
  131. 麻子仁丸Ma Zi Ren Wan, Cannabis Fruit Pill
  132. 麦门冬汤Mai Men Dong Tang, Ophiopogon Variant Decoction
  133. 木防己加茯苓汤Mu Fang Ji Jia Fu Ling Mang Xiao Tang, Woody Fangji Decoction Plus Poria and Marabilite
  134. 木防己汤Mu Fang Ji Tang, Woody Fangji Decoction
  135. 牡蛎泽泻散Mu Li Ze Xie San, Oyster Shell and Alisma Powder
  136. 内补当归建中汤Nei Bu Dang Gui Jian Zhong Tang, Internal supplement Chinese Angelica Center-Fortifying Decoction
  137. 排脓散Pai Nong San, Pus-Expelling Powder
  138. 蒲灰散Pu Hui San, Charred Typha Pollen Powder
  139. 去桂加白术汤Qu Gui Jia Bai Zhu Tang, Minus Cinnamon Twig and Plus White Atractylodes Decoction
  140. 三黄汤San Huang Tang, Three Yellows Decoction
  141. 三物黄芩汤San Wu Huang Qin Tang, Three Agents Scutellaria Decoction
  142. 芍药甘草附子汤Shao Yao Gan Cao Fu Zi Tang, Peony, Licorice and Aconite Decoction
  143. 芍药甘草汤Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang, Peony and Licorice Decoction
  144. 射干麻黄汤She Gan Ma Huang Tang, Belamcanda and Ephedra Decoction
  145. 肾气丸Shen Qi Wan, Kidney Qi Pill
  146. 生姜半夏散Sheng Jiang Ban Xia San, Ginger and Pinelliae Powder
  147. 生姜甘草汤Sheng Jiang Gan Cao Tang, Fresh Ginger and Licorice Decoction
  148. 生姜泻心汤Sheng Jiang Xie Xin Tang, Ginger Heart-Draining Decoction
  149. 十枣汤Shi Zao Tang, Ten Jujubes Decoction
  150. 死逆汤Si Ni Tang, Counterflow Cold Decoction
  151. 四逆加人参汤Si Ni Jia Ren Shen Tang, Counterflow Cold Decoction Plus Ginseng
  152. 四逆散Si Ni San, Counterflow Cold Powder
  153. 酸枣仁汤Suan Zao Ren Tang, Spiny Jujube Decoction
  154. 桃核承气汤Tao He Cheng Qi Tang, Peach Kernel Qi-Coordinating Decoction
  155. 桃花汤Tao Hua Tang Peach Blossom Decoction
  156. 调味承气汤Tiao Wei Cheng Qi Tang, Stomach Regulating and Qi Coordination Decoction
  157. 葶苈大枣汤Ting Li Da Zao Tang, Lepidium/Descurainiae and Jujube Lung-Draining Decoction
  158. 通麦四逆汤Tong Mai Si Ni Tang, Vessel Freeing Counterflow Cold Decoction
  159. 苇茎汤Wei Jing Tang, Phargmites Stem Decoction
  160. 温经汤Wen Jing Tang, Channel Warming Decoction
  161. 五苓散Wu Ling San, Poria Five Powder
  162. 乌头桂枝汤Wu Tou Gui Zhi Tang, Aconite Main Tuber and Cinnamon Twig Decoction
  163. 乌头煎Wu Tou Jian, Aconite Main Tuber Decoction
  164. 乌头汤Wu Tou Tang, Aconite Main Tuber Decoction
  165. 吴茱萸汤Wu Zhu Yu Tang, Evodia Decoction
  166. 下瘀血汤Xia Yu Xue Tang, Stasis-Purgating Decoction
  167. 小半夏加茯苓汤Xiao Ban Xia Jia Fu Ling Tang, Minor Pinellia Decoction plus Poria
  168. 小半夏汤Xiao Ban Xia Tang, Minor Pinellia Decoction
  169. 小柴胡汤Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Minor Bupleurum Decoction
  170. 小承气汤Xiao Cheng Qi Tang, Minor Qi-Coordinating Decoction
  171. 小建中汤Xiao Jian Zhong Tang, Minor Center-Fortifying Decoction
  172. 小青龙加石膏汤Xiao Qing Long Jia Shi Gao Tang, Minor Green-Blue Dragon Decoction Plus Gypsum
  173. 小青龙汤Xiao Qing Long Tang, Minor Green-Blue Dragon Decoction
  174. 小陷胸汤Xiao Xian Xiong Tang, Minor Chest Bind Decoction
  175. 泻心汤Xie Xin Tang, Pinellia Heart-Draining Decoction
  176. 芎归加胶艾汤Xiong Gui Jiao Ai Tang, Chuan Xiong, Chinese Angelica, Ass Hide Glue, and Mugwort Decoction
  177. 旋覆代赭汤Xuan Fu Dai Zhe Tang, Inula and Hematite Decoction
  178. 薏苡附子散Yi Yi Fu Zi San, Coix and Aconite Powder
  179. 茵陈蒿汤Yin Chen Hao Tang, Virgate Wormwood Decoction
  180. 越婢加半夏汤Yue Bi Jia Ban Xia Tang, Spleen-Effusing Decoction plus Pinellia
  181. 越婢加术汤Yue Bi Jia Zhu Tang, Spleen-Effusing Decoction plus White Atractylodes
  182. 越婢汤Yue Bi Tang, Spleen-Effusing Decoction
  183. 泽泻汤Ze Xie Tang, Alisam Decoction
  184. 炙甘草汤Zhi Gan Cao Tang, Honey-Fried Licorice Decoction
  185. 枳实芍药散Zhi Shi Shao Yao San, Unripe Bitter Orange and Peony Powder
  186. 枳实栀子豉汤Zhi Shi Zhi Zi Chi Tang, unripe Bitter Orange, Gardenia and Fermented Soybean Decoction
  187. 枳实薤白桂枝汤Zhi Shi Xie Bai Gui Zhi Tang, Unripe Bitter Orange, Chinese Chive, and Cinnamon Twig Decoction
  188. 枳术汤Zhi Zhu Tang, Unripe Bitter Orange, White Atractylodes Decoction
  189. 栀子柏皮汤Zhi Zi Bai Pi Tang, Gardenia and Phellodendron Decoction
  190. 栀子豉汤Zhi Zi Chi Tang, Gardenia and Fermented Soybean Decoction
  191. 栀子大黄汤Zhi Zi Da Huang Tang, Gardenia and Rhubarb Decoction
  192. 栀子甘草豉汤Zhi Zi Gan Cao Chi Tang, Gardenia, Licorice, and Fermented Soybean Decoction
  193. 栀子干姜汤Zhi Zi Gan Jiang Tang, Gardenia and Dried Ginger Decoction
  194. 栀子厚朴汤Zhi Zi Hou Po Tang, Gardenia and Officinal Magnolia Bark Decoction
  195. 栀子生姜豉汤Zhi Zi Sheng Jiang Chi Tang, Gardenia Fresh Ginger, and Fermented Soybean Decoction
  196. 术附汤Zhu Fu Tang, White Atractylodes and Aconite Decoction
  197. 真武汤Zhen Wu Tang, True Warrior Decoction
  198. 猪苓散Zhu Ling San, Polyporus Powder
  199. 猪苓汤Zhu Ling Tang, Polyporus Decoction
  200. 竹叶石膏汤Zhu Ye Shi Gao Tang, Lophatherum and Gypsum Decoction

About the Author

Professor Huang Huang was born in Jiangyin, Jiangsu province in 1954. He is currently the dean emeritus of the School of Basic Medical Science, professor, and supervisor to doctoral students in Nanjing University of CM.

He focused on investigating and summarizing the experiences of famous TCM clinicians and examined the different schools of classical formulas with a particular emphasis on studying the herb and formula indications after the 1990's. He developed the first questionnaire on the clinical experiences of famous TCM clinicians in China and has directed research on the academic experiences of 330 famous TCM clinicians in China, which was consigned by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. He has also written collections on the clinical experiences of contemporary famous TCM clinicians, such as the Discussion on Formulas and Medicinals by Famous TCM Clinicians (名中医论方药), Insights about Formulas and Medicinals (方药心悟), and the Truth of Formulas and Medicinals (方药传真). He focuses on and advocates the study and application of TCM classical formulas, modern literature on single herb and formula indications, and the application for classical formula patterns on constitutional types.

clinical application of 50 medicinals

Zhang Zhong-jing's Clinical Application of 50 Medicinals
By Huang Huang Ph. D. TCM
Published by People's Medical Publishing House; English edition (2008)
Format: 180 mm x 255 mm (7.50 x 10.50 inches), 592 pages, hardcover, library binding
ISBN: 9787117092074
SKU: b0050herbs
Price: $64.95

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